Commons Without Tragedy
Robert E. Manning

Parks and Carrying Capacity Book CoverHow much can we use the environment without spoiling what we find so valuable about it? Determining the carrying capacity of parks and related areas is a perennial question whose urgency grows each year as the number of visits continues to increase. Parks and Carrying Capacity: Commons Without Tragedy represents a comprehensive assessment of the issue, as it:

The book includes a series of case studies that describe research programs designed to support analysis and management of carrying capacity at eight diverse units of the U.S. National Park System, and an additional case study that explores how the foundational components of carrying capacity (formulating indicators and standards, monitoring, and adaptive management) are being applied in an increasing number of environmental and natural resources fields to address the growing urgency of sustainability.

Parks and Carrying Capacity is an important new work for faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, and researchers in outdoor recreation, park planning and management, and natural resource conservation and management, as well as for professional planners and managers involved with park and outdoor recreation related agencies and nongovernmental organizations.

Robert E. Manning is a professor in the Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources at the University of Vermont, where he teaches park and wilderness management and environmental history and philosophy, and conducts a program of research for the U.S. National Park Service.



PART I. From Commons to Carrying Capacity
Chapter 1. The Tragedy of the Commons
Chapter 2. Carrying Capacity of Parks and Protected Areas
Chapter 3. Indicators and Standards

PART II. Research to Support Application of Carrying Capacity
Chapter 4. Identifying Indicators for Parks and Protected Areas
Chapter 5. Normative Standards for Indicator Variables
Chapter 6. Visual Research Methods
Chapter 7. Tradeoffs in Park and Outdoor Recreation Management
Chapter 8. Computer Simulation Modeling of Visitor Use

PART III. Case Studies of Measuring and Managing Carrying Capacity
Chapter 9. Managing Recreation at Acadia National Park
Chapter 10. Day-Use Social Carrying Capacity of Yosemite Valley
Chapter 11. Wilderness Camping at Isle Royale National Park
Chapter 12. Indicators and Standards at Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area
Chapter 13. Estimating Carrying Capacity of Alcatraz Island
Chapter 14. Defining and Managing the Quality of the Visitor Experience at Muir Woods National Monument
Chapter 15. Wilderness Management at Zion National Park
Chapter 16. Indicators and Standards for Cultural Resources at Mesa Verde National Park

PART IV. Managing Carrying Capacity
Chapter 17. Alternative Management Practices
Chapter 18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Management Practices

PART V. Beyond Parks and Protected Areas
Chapter 19. Indicators and Standards of Sustainability


Appendix A. Indicators for Parks and Protected Areas
Appendix B. Standards for Parks and Protected Areas

Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 1-55963-105-8
Copyright 2007
Retail Price $35

"This book is a valuable contribution to a literature calling for increased science-based knowledge about the long-term management and sustainability of critical biophysical and social values for parks and other protected areas. Manning offers a range of practical, easy-to-understand case studies from applied research and resource management that addresses the question. At what point must managers intervene to prevent unacceptable environmental and social impacts by visitors? Policy makers, field resource managers, planners, researchers, teachers, and students interested in the controversy over park protection and preservation versus use will benefit greatly from this provocative volume." - David W. Lime, senior research associate emeritus, Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota